The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and Basic Laws.
Its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it., Yehudim (pl.), in origin the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah.
In this case, it is complicated by long standing politics and religious and cultural prejudices.
The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure.He also stated that archaeology suggests that the return was a "trickle" taking place over decades, rather than a single event.The region was under control of the Achaemenids until the fall of their empire in c. Jews were also politically independent during the Hasmonean dynasty spanning from 140 to 37 BCE and to some degree under the Herodian dynasty from 37 BCE to 6 CE.The genetic composition of different Jewish groups shows that Jews share a common genetic pool dating back 4,000 years, as a marker of their common ancestral origin.Despite their long-term separation, Jewish communities maintained commonalities in culture, tradition, and language.