Although relief is subdued everywhere, the landscape is varied and beautiful.Unconsolidated Paleogene and Neogene deposits, gravels, sands, and clays, with overlying glacial drift, have buried the previous landscape of secondary rocks.In East Germany this boundary was, until the fall of its communist government in 1989, marked by defenses designed to prevent escape. This devotion to hard work has combined with a public demeanour—which is at once reserved and assertive—to produce a stereotype of the German people as aloof and distant.The 185 square miles (480 square km) of the “island” of , the city declined in national and international significance until 1989–90, when a popular and peaceful uprising toppled the East German government and soon after restored a united Berlin as the capital of a reunified Germany. Clearly, modern Germany struggles to balance its national interests with those of an influx of political and economic refugees from far afield, especially North Africa, Turkey, and South Asia, an influx that has fueled ethnic tensions and swelled the ranks of nationalist political parties, particularly in eastern Germany, where unemployment was double that of the west. Yet Germans prize both their private friendships and their friendly relations with neighbours and visitors, place a high value on leisure and culture, and enjoy the benefits of life in a liberal democracy that has become ever more integrated with and central to a united Europe..Hessen and the Westphalian Basin are succeeded northward by the hills of Lower Saxony.The breakthrough of the Less than 90 miles (145 km) wide in the west, the North German Plain, or Lowland, broadens eastward across the whole of northern Germany.The Rhine Rift Valley continues northward through Hessen, with a series of discontinuous basins filled with sediments from the Paleogene and Neogene periods (i.e., about 65 to 2.6 million years ago) that allow a slightly difficult traverse to the North German Plain.
In the northern part of the country the into the Jutland peninsula of Denmark.
The sequence of Triassic rocks ends south and east against the great Jurassic scarp of the (Schwäbische Alb), rising to more than 3,300 feet (1,000 metres), and its continuation, the lower Franconian Alp (Fränkische Alb).
Large parts of the plateaus and lowlands in the eastern region are covered with loess and are farmed, but the massive fringing the Black Forest and the Keuper scarp are mainly wooded.
The pattern of valleys eroded by streams and rivers has largely given rise to the details of the present landscape.
Valley had some erosive effect, but they mainly contributed sheets of glacial deposits.