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At approximately four metres (13 feet) thick, the basalt flow is relatively thin, Since the tree trunks were engulfed at the bottom of the flow, cooling may have been immediate, with any water present in the wood aiding extremely rapid encapsulation and thus preservation.The local geological context makes the basalt flow approximately ‘30 million years old’, in keeping with other basalt flows in the region all regarded as of Tertiary age (in the conventional terminology).Not only are these the essence, allegedly, of 'Jesus'' (also, I prefer to put 'Jesus'' name in single quotes) teaching in the Gospels and James' in the Letter ascribed to his name in the New Testament and in early Church literature generally; but they are also the basis in the picture provided by Josephus of John the Baptist's teaching and a central category of ''), the only really clearly identifiable term of self-designation in the Dead Sea Scrolls - a denominative also designating the followers of James par excellence and the group succeeding or basically coeval with ''), the War Scroll, and those documents related to it.Several references are absolutely critical for the correct elucidation of this seemingly purposefully obscure allusion and archaism.

That leaves us only Vespasian and his son Titus to satisfy this characterization who did, in fact, plunder the Temple in 70 CE and used the proceeds afterwards to pay for the abomination, now famously referred to worldwide as ' than this extremely telling allusion and this is what is meant by a proper appreciation of 'the internal data' being frustrated or rendered meaningless by inept and/or over-inflated claims for and reliance upon '' (known to have been carried out by the Romans) and the wholesale and wanton destruction wrought by these foreign invaders.This siltstone belongs to the Permian German Creek coal measures, conventionally believed to be around 255 million years old.The pieces of wood recovered by the miners were examined and photographed, as too was the leaf imprint, but access to the ventilation shaft was not possible, nor were samples of the enclosing basalt available, having long been dumped with all the other rubble and waste rock.The imprint of a leaf was also discovered within the basalt, which was also regarded as remarkable, remembering that the enclosing rock was once molten lava erupted at 1000–1200°C (about 1800–2200°F).So how could these tree trunks have survived being engulfed by molten lava?