To establish an absolute chronology, 11 samples representing nine tombs were radiocarbon-dated. ) has been archaeologically verified at a number of sites from Kazakhstan and Mongolia to northeastern China (4, 14, 29, 30).Dated material includes charcoal (twigs of spp., and wood of Maloideae spp. The Liushui bronze weaponry, particularly the very distinctive rhombic arrowheads with one side spur, and horse harnesses (Fig.4) were documented and further used to reconstruct disorders of the musculoskeletal apparatus and to discuss the predominant lifestyle.Archaeological objects and funerary features do not show obvious cultural diversity, suggesting that the cemetery represents a coherent cultural period.
Instead, more nuanced models are being put forward that account for more complex economies, including different types of herding, farming and foraging, and sociopolitical organization as well as the macro- and microregional diversity of social, economic, and environmental change during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age (e.g., 14–18).Furthermore, studies on earlier forms of pastoralism in Eurasia from at least the late third millennium B. (10, 11) indicate a long developmental process leading to the complex subsistence strategies and political economies of the first millennium B. In a recent review of the archaeology of the Eurasian steppes and Mongolia, the “significant role” that this study field “must come to play in developing more comprehensive understandings of world prehistory” was stressed (13).To reach this stage, however, a better knowledge of the driving forces and key variables (i.e., climate change, innovative technologies, new forms of social and political integration) behind the transition to the pastoral and mixed agropastoral economies of the late Bronze age and early Iron Age and solid case studies of this transition on the local to regional scale are required (2, 13, 1920–21).The goods with which the deceased were endowed are limited in type, quantity, and quality.Sheep/goat bones in or beside vessels are the remains of food gifts, whereas single horse skulls or mandibles with or without a bronze bit and cheek pieces placed next to the human body might represent highly valued riding horses.