Painkillers: Opioids such as codeineand morphine are narcotics prescribed to treat pain.
Other drugs in this class include oxycodone(Oxy Contin), hydrocodone(Vicodin), meperidine(Demerol), hydromorphone(Dilaudid), and propoxyphene(Darvon).
This stage may also include the teenager either buying, stealing, or drug dealing to get drugs.
In the fourth stage, adolescents have established regular usage, have become preoccupied with getting intoxicated ("high"), and have developed problems in their social, educational, vocational, or family life as a result of using the substance. Medically reviewed by Margaret Walsh, MD; American Board of Pediatrics REFERENCES: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP).
Some medications are available to specifically counteract the effects of drugs. "Parental monitoring." Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.
For example, naltrexone is used to counteract the effects of opioid intoxication. "Experience, Research Show Testing Doesn't Work." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
The final and most serious fifth stage of drug use is defined by the youth only feeling "normal" when they are using. "Teen Drug Use Declined in 2002, Report Shows." National Institute on Drug Abuse. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with substance use disorders.
Hecht, Ph D According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, in 2006, 16.2 million Americans aged 12 and older had taken a prescription pain reliever, tranquilizer, stimulant, or sedative for nonmedical purposes at least once in the year prior to being surveyed. Although any type of medication has the potential to be abused, certain groups of prescription drugs are most commonly abused.
Some of the most common symptoms of drug abuse in teenagers include lying, making excuses, breaking curfew, staying in their room, becoming verbally or physically abusive toward others, having items in their possession that are connected to drug use (paraphernalia), the smell of drugs (for example, solvent smell of inhalants, marijuana smell) on them, mood swings, sleepless nights, stealing, and changes in friends. "Ethnic Identification and Cultural Ties May Help Prevent Drug Use." National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Examples of paraphernalia include matches, rolling papers, and pipes for drugs that are smoked, multiple pill bottles for substances that are in pill form, mirrors for drugs that are snorted, and needles, syringes, and items that can be used as tourniquets for drugs that are injected. "Annual Survey Finds Increasing Teen Use of Ecstasy Steroids." National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Blood pressure medications may be administered to patients who are suffering from high blood pressure associated with stimulant intoxication and with withdrawal from depressants. "Selected Prescription Drugs With Potential for Abuse." Printed September 2002, revised Apr.
Fluids are often administered to those who have become dehydrated, and cooling blankets are given to those whose temperatures have become dangerously high, as may occur with Ecstasy. "Recovery Harder for Addicts Who Start Young." 14.6 Mar.