Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University.
Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence.
In 750, following the overthrow of the Ummayad caliphate by the Abbasids, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital.
This was known as al-Askar (the city of sections, or cantonments) as it was laid out like a military camp.
Cairo has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture.
Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta " classification according to Ga WC.
Cairo would eventually become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo containing hundreds of thousands of books.
During that time, Jawhar also commissioned the construction of the al-Azhar Mosque, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world.
In 1250 slave soldiers, known as the Mamluks, seized control of Egypt and like many of their predecessors established Cairo as the capital of their new dynasty.
Continuing a practice started by the Ayyubids, much of the land occupied by former Fatimid palaces was sold and replaced by newer buildings.
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