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In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII while reforming the Julian calendar established 1 January as the beginning of a New Year of the Gregorian calendar.

Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805.

In Latin America, various native cultures continue the observation of traditions according to their own calendars.

Israel, China, India and other countries, continue to celebrate New Year on different dates.

The widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar and marking January 1 as the beginning of a new year is almost global now.

Liturgical developments in Rome and Constantinople did not always match, although a rigid adherence to form was never mandated in the church.This was also the case both in the old Roman calendar (at least after about 713 BCE) and in the Julian calendar that succeeded it.Other calendars have been used historically in different parts of the world; some calendars count years numerically, while others do not.Separations between the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical year and Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar grew only over several centuries' time.During those intervening centuries, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastic year was moved to the first day of Advent, the Sunday nearest to St. According to the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the liturgical year begins at pm on the Saturday preceding the fourth Sunday prior to 25 December (between November 26 and December 2).